The climate of China varies greatly. The northern zone (within which lies Beijing) has a climate with winters of Arctic severity.
The central zone (within which Shanghai is situated) has a generally temperate climate. The southern zone (within which lies Guangzhou) has a generally subtropical climate.
The Palaeozoic formations of China, excepting only the upper part of the Carboniferous system, are marine, while the Mesozoic and Tertiary deposits are estuarine and freshwater or else of terrestrial origin. Groups of volcanic cones occur in the Great Plain of north China.
In the Liaodong and Shandong Peninsulas, there are basaltic plateau.